Jeu de Paume – Paris is closed. Reopening on 14 February for the exhibition Thomas Demand.

Mimmo Jodice
Mimmo Jodice 1978 Vera fotografia [True Photography]
Gelatin silver-bromide print on baryta paper, with writing in pen by the artist
Courtesy Galerie Karsten Greve St. Moritz, Cologne, Paris
© Mimmo Jodice

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Chronology 1960-1975

Exhibition Reversing the Eye. Arte Povera and Beyond


May 3: Piero Manzoni’s solo exhibition Corpi d’aria at the Galleria Azimut in Milan, featuring balloons supplied in a package designed by the artist, which are to be inflated and placed on a tripod in the manner of a sculpture. In the Fiato d’artista variant, the balloons are inflated by the artist himself. On July 21, for his exhibition Consumazione dell’arte. Dinamica del pubblico. Divorare l’arte, Piero Manzoni invites the public to eat hard-boiled eggs onto which he has applied his own finger-prints in ink. An extension of Duchamp’s readymades, the event illustrates the symbolic power of the work of art as a direct communion between the artist and the audience.


January 13: Sculture viventi, an event by Piero Manzoni performed for the Filmgiornale SEDI in Milan, in which Manzoni signs the bodies of models and participants and then issues them with a certificate stating that the person “has been signed by my hand and is therefore considered from the date below to be an authentic and genuine work of art.” Another similar work is the Base magica – Scultura vivente in which anyone who sits on a simple pedestal acquires the status of an artwork. From 1959 to 1961, Piero Manzoni is filmed by Gian Paolo Maccentelli while completing four projects (Linee, Aree e sfere di gomma per opere d’arte, Divorare l’arte, and Sculture viventi) as part of the Cinegiornali, a series of short films shown in cinemas before the main feature.

August 12: First exhibition of Merda d’artista by Piero Manzoni in the exhibition In villeggiatura da Pescetto in Albisola.


Michelangelo Pistoletto produces his first Quadri specchianti (Mirror Paintings), which are exhibited at the Galleria Galatea, Turin from April 27 to May 14, 1963. After visiting the exhibition, Parisian gallery owners Ileana and Michael Sonnabend decide to represent the artist and put him in touch with New York gallery owner Leo Castelli.


February 6: Piero Manzoni dies at the age of 29, after suffering a heart attack in his studio at Via Fiori Chiari, 16, in Milan.

February 9: opening of Galleria La Tartaruga’s new space in Piazza del Popolo, Rome. Founded in 1954 by Plinio De Martiis, the gallery quickly became a gathering place for Roman intellectuals. Artists such as Jannis Kounellis, Pino Pascali, Cesare Tacchi, and Eliseo Mattiacci held their first solo exhibitions here. In this new space, De Martiis continues to exhibit the Italian artists with whom he is associated, including Fabio Mauri and Giosetta Fioroni.

November: Eugenio Battisti launches the magazine Marcatrè in Genoa, promoting a transversal and decompartmentalized approach to art that encompasses literature, music, industrial design, and the visual arts. The magazine’s contributors include great names as well as a young Germano Celant, who writes the exhibition reviews. The magazine ceases publication in November 1970 after sixty-two issues.

Publication of Piero Manzoni. Life and Work, Manzoni’s artistic testament. This book is considered to be the first Italian artist’s book of the period.


May: opening of the Galleria Gian Enzo Sperone in Turin with the group exhibition Rotella, Mondino, Pistoletto, Lichtenstein. The galerist exhibits many foreign artists, especially Americans, and is involved in the introduction of American pop art to Italy. Sperone organizes the first solo exhibition of Andy Warhol in Italy in 1965. From 1966 onward, the number of Italian artists exhibited increases, including the leading exponents of what became Arte Povera, who are exhibited in 1966 under the banner of “environmental art.”

June 20–October 18: 32nd Venice Biennale Arte. Pop artists are exhibited in the American pavilion and Robert Rauschenberg wins the International Grand Prize in Painting.


From November 11: opening of Giulio Paolini’s one-man show at the Galleria Notizie in Turin. Paolini presents his first purely photographic works, mainly emulsified canvases that explore the figure of the artist, including Académie 3.

Alighiero Boetti produces some fifty Indian ink drawings representing manufactured objects, often related to the media (cameras, microphones, photographic equipment, etc.). This series was not exhibited until 1981 at the Galerie Chantal Crousel in Paris.


January: Luciano Fabro’s solo exhibition at the Galleria Notizie in Turin, featuring, among other works, In cubo, a cube that one can squeeze into, a neutral space that allows the artist to project himself. The exhibition is accompanied by a leaflet illustrated with photographs by Giovanni Ricci.

June and July: Arte abitabile exhibition at the Galleria Gian Enzo Sperone in Turin, which marks “the beginning of Italian experiments in the field of Environmental Art, through a search for a total relationship with space” (Germano Celant). It features works by Piero Gilardi, Gianni Piacentino, and Michelangelo Pistoletto.


March: creation of the magazine bit by Daniela Palazzoli in Milan, in collaboration with Germano Celant and Tommaso Trini. This monthly magazine was a newsletter with photographs, reporting on the Italian and international art scene with a counter-culture spirit and a psychedelic aesthetic. Publication ceased in November 1968 after nine issues. The leading contemporary Italian artistic movements were all featured, including Arte Povera, Radical Architecture, and studies on Poesia Visiva.

April 13: inauguration of Galleria Il Diaframma, created by Lanfranco Colombo in Milan, with an exhibition of works by the photographer Paolo Monti. Over the following years, this gallery, one of the first dedicated exclusively to photography in Italy, exhibited work by Mario Cresci, Mimmo Jodice, Luigi Ghirri, Ugo Mulas, and Franco Vaccari.

April 26–mid-September: exhibition Il museo sperimentale d’arte contemporanea devised by Eugenio Battisti and Germano Celant at the Galleria Civica d’Arte Moderna e Contemporanea (GAM) in Turin. This exhibition was based on a group of works by over two hundred artists, collected since 1963 by the art historian Eugenio Battisti and donated to the GAM in 1966. The aim was to bring artistic creation closer to the study of art, so the works were displayed with documentation and archival materials.

June: Giancarlo Politi founds the journal Flash Art in Milan. This was a monthly, large circulation art news magazine. In issue 5, published in November 1967, Germano Celant published the article “Arte povera. Appunti per una guerriglia,” the movement’s manifesto. This text challenged the alienation of the artist by the art market and promoted an aesthetic and cultural revolution that would allow artists to emancipate themselves from the work of art as object.

June 8: opening of the exhibition Lo spazio degli elementi. Fuoco, immagine, acqua, terra at Galleria L’Attico in Rome, a gallery located in an apartment on the Piazza di Spagna. The artists presented works made from primordial natural elements, emphasizing their convergence with the artificial world. The exhibition is often considered to have been the founding moment of Arte Povera, a few months before the Genoa exhibition. It featured works by Umberto Bignardi, Mario Ceroli, Piero Gilardi, Jannis Kounellis, Pino Pascali, Michelangelo Pistoletto, and Mario Schifano.

July 2–October 1: exhibition Lo spazio dell’immagine by Umbro Apollonio, Maurizio Calvesi, Giorgio De Marchis, and Gillo Dorfles at the Palazzo Trinci in Foligno, Umbria. Taking Lucio Fontana’s Ambiente spaziale, presented in the exhibition, as a starting point, each artist or group of artists was given a room in the palace to use as they wished. Mario Ceroli, Luciano Fabro, Eliseo Mattiacci, Pino Pascali, and Michelangelo Pistoletto took part. At a time when many artists were breaking away from traditional forms of representation, this spatial research resonated widely and was covered and documented by journalists, critics, and photographers.

September 27–October 20: the exhibition Arte povera – Im spazio is curated by Germano Celant at the Galleria La Bertesca in Genoa. It was at this exhibition that the term Arte Povera, coined by Germano Celant, first appeared. Alighiero Boetti, Luciano Fabro, Jannis Kounellis, Giulio Paolini, Pino Pascali, and Emilio Prini were exhibited alongside artists who shared their aesthetic, such as Mario Ceroli, Eliseo Mattiacci, Paolo Icaro, and Cesare Tacchi, all of whom were grouped together there under the label im spazio, short for immagine spazio (the space of thoughts).

December: opening of Deposito d’arte presente in Turin. This space administered by artists, gravitating around gallery owner Gian Enzo Sperone, was simultaneously a working studio, an exhibition space, and a space for the sale of works. Unlike the white cube of the gallery or the collector’s salon, this new concept allowed artists to experiment with new forms of presentation, for example mixing visual works and theatrical performances. The venue closed in June 1969.

From December 4: the exhibition Con temp’ l’azione is organized by Daniela Palazzoli in the galleries Christian Stein, Gian Enzo Sperone, and Il Punto in Turin, with Giovanni Anselmo, Alighiero Boetti, Luciano Fabro, Mario Merz, Michelangelo Pistoletto, and Gilberto Zorio, among others. The title of the exhibition is a play on the word “contemplation,” which becomes “with time, action.” For the occasion, Pistoletto created a performance in which he strolled through the city with his work Scultura da passeggio, a very large ball of paper.

Foundation of Studio 9702 by Luciano Giaccari in Varese. The studio is home to thousands of videos by Luciano Giaccari documenting over forty years of the Italian avant-garde scene. Giaccari supported the artists in their desire to control media coverage of their performative or ephemeral works, thus acting as a key player in the recognition of their work during the 1970s.


March: creation of the journal Cartabianca by Fabio Sargentini, director of the Galleria L’Attico in Rome. The first three issues were edited by Alberto Boatto, who made it a space for critical debate with contributions from Achille Bonito Oliva, Maurizio Calvesi, and Germano Celant. The magazine ceased publication in May 1969.


May 6–31: exhibition Il Teatro delle mostre organized by Plinio De Martiis at the Galleria La Tartaruga in Rome. Each day, an artist was invited to take over the gallery space with a work of art, an installation, or an event. Participating artists included Giosetta Fioroni, Laura Grisi, Paolo Icaro, Fabio Mauri, Giulio Paolini, and Emilio Prini. A catalogue was published, with a preface by Maurizio Calvesi, captions by Achille Bonito Oliva, and photographs by Plinio De Martiis.

From June 15: solo exhibition Faredisfare- rifarevedere 0106768 by Paolo Icaro at the Galleria La Bertesca in Genoa. The title (“doundoredosee”) points to the organic quality of a creative process that operates without any discontinuity. The exhibition was documented through photographs published in the magazine Pallone.

June 22–October 20: 34th Venice Biennale. Pino Pascali and Michelangelo Pistoletto were both invited. A few days before the opening, the event was disrupted by students protesting against the instrumentalization of art by the elites as well as the massive police presence. Almost all the Italian artists—as well as the Spanish, French, and Scandinavian artists—withdrew their works from the exhibitions or had their pavilions closed down.

July: first issue of the magazine Pallone, created at the Galleria La Bertesca in Genoa. The magazine published texts and photographs by the artists Pier Paolo Calzolari, Palo Icaro, Renato Mambor, and Emilio Prini. It was a forum for expression for this group which was still coming together: for instance, they showed photographs of trips they had taken together or of memories with their friends.

September 28: death of Pino Pascali in a motorcycle accident. Mario Cresci took photos of his funeral.

October 4–6: the event Arte povera più azioni povere is organized by Germano Celant as part of the third edition of the Rassegna internazionale di arti figurative di Amalfi created by Marcello Rumma. The event featured works by Italian artists already exhibited by Germano Celant presented alongside a few foreign artists (Richard Long, Jan Dibbets, Ger Van Elk) in the Amalfi arsenals, as well as (sometimes spontaneous) performances scattered around the city, and also roundtable discussions between artists and critics. Many photographers and video artists, including Gerry Schum, were present.

December 21: inauguration of the new Galleria L’Attico space in Rome in a garage on Via Beccaria with a screening of the films Libro di santi di Roma eterna by Alfredo Leonardi and SKMP2 by Luca Maria Patella on the Roman art scene, as well as a documentary by Jean-Luc Godard and Jean- Pierre Prévost about May ’68.


From January 14: exhibition Dodici cavalli vivi by Jannis Kounellis at the Galleria L’Attico in Rome. This performance, in which the artist presented twelve live horses in the gallery’s new premises, was one of the most striking pieces of Italian art of this period.

From February 21: exhibition 2121969 by Giulio Paolini at the Galleria de Nieubourg in Milan. Among other things, he exhibited his Autoritratto in the guise of Poussin, Giovane che guarda Lorenzo Lotto, and Saffo. The exhibition was complemented by an artist’s book in which a text by the artist, giving a title and some information, appeared on the reproduction of each work.

March 22–April 27: exhibition Live in your head: when attitude becomes form organized by Harald Szeemann at the Kunsthalle in Bern. The curator assembled nearly seventy international artists for this legendary exhibition, which was intended to present contemporary art that transcended minimal art. Italians (Giovanni Anselmo, Alighiero Boetti, Pier Paolo Calzolari, Jannis Kounellis, Mario Merz, Pino Pascali, Michelangelo Pistoletto, Emilio Prini, and Gilberto Zorio) were the second most represented nationality after the Americans. The exhibition catalogue contains three introductory articles, including one in Italian, “Nuovo alfabeto per corpo e materia,” written by Tommaso Trini.

September 21: Campo urbano: interventi estetici nella dimensione collettiva urbana, an event organized by Luciano Caramel, Ugo Mulas, and Bruno Munari in the streets of Como. Forty-two artists were invited to present installations, performances, concerts, and happenings in the streets of the city. The events questioned the place of art in society, its ability to respond to people’s needs and to come up with sometimes radical or controversial solutions. The day’s events were documented in a catalogue with photographs by Ugo Mulas.

Germano Celant publishes Arte povera, the key work in establishing the international avant-garde and the presence of Italian artists within it. Six pages with carefully selected and arranged photographs and documents are devoted to each featured artist. The Italian artists in the book are Giovanni Anselmo, Alighiero Boetti, Pier Paolo Calzolari, Luciano Fabro, Jannis Kounellis, Mario Merz, Giulio Paolini, Giuseppe Penone, Michelangelo Pistoletto, Emilio Prini, and Gilberto Zorio. The book was published simultaneously in Italy, Germany, England, and the United States.


January 31–February 28: exhibition Gennaio 70: comportamenti, progetti, mediazioni organized by Renato Barilli, Maurizio Calvesi, Andrea Emiliani, and Tommaso Trini at the Museo Civico di Bologna. In an unprecedented initiative, the curators lent the artists audiovisual equipment to record performances to be broadcast during the exhibition on television sets. Maurizio Calvesi explained that “the place once occupied in the home by paintings and engravings has been usurped by the small screen” and that this substitution should also be made in the museum space. Giovanni Anselmo, Alighiero Boetti, Pier Paolo Calzolari, Gino De Dominicis, Luciano Fabro, Jannis Kounellis, Eliseo Mattiacci, Mario Merz, Giulio Paolini, Luca Maria Patella, Giuseppe Penone, Michelangelo Pistoletto, Emilio Prini, and Gilberto Zorio took part in the event. The videos have unfortunately been lost.

June: Information Documentation Archive (IDA) founded by Germano Celant and Ida Gianelli in Genoa. This database of documents on contemporary art and architecture was constituted in one year, with one thousand five hundred documents (slides, films, newspapers, press releases, publications…) assembled and divided into three categories: Arte Povera, conceptual art, and land art.

June 12–July 12: exhibition Conceptual Art, Arte Povera, Land Art organized by the IDA at the GAM in Turin. This exhibition by Germano Celant ensured international recognition for Arte Povera by presenting the movement on a par with the major currents of contemporary American art. The catalogue, which includes accounts from the participating artists, is an important document in the history of the avant-garde in the 1970s.

June 30–September 30: Amore mio, an event organized by an artists’ collective led by Achille Bonito Oliva at the Palazzo Ricci in Montepulciano. It was a very special meeting place for a community of artists that led to the creation of a network of mutual influences. Participants were asked to indicate the names of works or events by the other artists with whom they had a particular affinity.

July 2–September 20: Information, an exhibition organized by Kynaston McShine at the MoMA in New York, featuring some one hundred international artists, including Giulio Paolini, Giuseppe Penone, Michelangelo Pistoletto, Emilio Prini, and Luciano Fabro). During the exhibition, Luca Maria Patella’s film SKMP2 and the videos of the performances presented for Gennaio ’70 in Bologna earlier in the year were also screened. The various avant-gardes were beginning to be structured and institutionalized

November 30: Gerry Schum broadcasts the program Identifications on television in West Germany. After Land art, this second “televised exhibition” project featured performances filmed by Gerry Schum and devised in collaboration with artists such as Giovanni Anselmo, Alighiero Boetti, Pier Paolo Calzolari, Gino de Dominicis, Mario Merz, and Gilbero Zorio.

November 30–January 31, 1971: Vitalità del negativo nell’arte italiana 1960/70 an exhibition organized by Achille Bonito Oliva at the Palazzo delle Esposizioni in Rome. This major exhibition was a sign of institutional recognition for the Italian avant-garde, with the Palazzo delle Esposizioni embracing contemporary art for the first time since the war. The scenography and the layout by architect Piero Sartogo were inspired by those used in the most innovative galleries. A dozen televisions broadcasting what was happening inside the building to the outside, in a staging of the exhibition itself. The Incontri internazionali d’arte, which contributed to the institutionalization of the Italian avant-garde through the organization of exhibitions and events, were also created on this occasion by Graziella Lonardi Buontempo.

Creation of the Galleria Multipli in Turin by Giorgio Persano. Active until 1975, this gallery carried out important work on the concept of the multiple, which was considered at the time to be the medium for new expressive research. Giorgio Persano worked with the Arte Povera artists (Giovanni Anselmo, Alighiero Boetti, Pier Paolo Calzolari, Giulio Paolini, Giuseppe Penone, Michelagelo Pistoletto, and Gilberto Zorio) as well as with several other Italian conceptual artists including Salvo.


February 6: screening of Identifications by Gerry Schum at the Galleria Sperone in Turin. The series was also shown on February 19 and 20 at the Galleria L’Attico in Rome, on March 3 and 4 at the Galleria Toselli in Milan, and on March 16 at the Galleria San Fedele in Milan, as well as at the 1972 Venice Biennale.

July 6: the first videosaletta established at Galleria Diagramma, Milan, a video screening room, in partnership with Luciano Giaccari’s Studio 9702. Excerpts from documentary and journalistic videos were screened there in an effort to make non-institutional video accessible to the public.

September: Tommaso Trini founds the magazine Data in Milan. The magazine, which many of the committed art critics were involved in, sought to draw conclusions from ten years of artistic experimentation in Italy and to move on from May 1968 in order to devise a new compromise between artists, critics, and gallery owners. Many artists were also invited to express their thoughts in the magazine and photography was prominent, both as artwork and as a medium of information. In the first issue, Germano Celant published the article “Book as artwork 1960/70,” which foreshadowed the growing interest in artists’ books.

September 24–November 1: 7th Paris Biennial at the Parc Floral in Vincennes. Italian participation was organized by Achille Bonito Oliva with, among others, Alighiero Boetti, Pier Paolo Calzolari, Gino De Dominicis Luciano Fabro, Jannis Kounellis, Paolo Mussat Sartor, Giulio Paolini, Giuseppe Penone, Emilio Prini, and Gilberto Zorio. The curator organized several sections covering the entire field of artistic creation: conceptual art, theater, photography, architecture, film, and music. Penone exhibited Svolgere la propria pelle, while Zorio showed the series of photographs from the event Fludità Radicale, filmed by Schum the previous year as part of his program Identifications.

From 1971, the Centro Studi e Archivio della Comunicazione (CSAC), founded by Arturo Carlo Quintavalle in 1968 at the University of Parma, organized exhibitions of American photographers, with figures such as Diane Arbus, Lee Friedlander, and Joel Meyerowitz, with the aim of making them known in Italy and encouraging research into their work. The CSAC played a crucial role in the recognition and institutionalization of photography and, more generally, of media languages in Italy.


June: TV out 1 an exhibition organized by Luciano Giaccari in Venice consisting of films shown on television screens in the streets of Venice in partnership with the Galleria Del Cavallino, one of the few venues specializing in video in Italy.

June and July: I denti del drago, vita e morte del libro nell’era post-gutemberghiana curated by Daniela Palazzoli at the Galleria L’uomo e l’arte in Milan, the first exhibition on the artist’s book in Italy. Featuring sixty-two artists and authors, the exhibition explored the way books had changed through contact with the mass media, from being repositories of knowledge to being objects capable of producing visual, tactile, and olfactory sensation.

June 11–October 1: 36th Venice Biennale. Italian artists were represented in several exhibitions curated by Francesco Arcangeli, Renato Barilli, Daniela Palazzoli, and Gerry Schum. In the exhibition, Opera o comportamento, Franco Vaccari installed a photo-booth in which visitors were invited to photograph themselves and then hang their portraits on the walls, gradually filling the space. This Esposizione in tempo reale was a completely new kind of initiative in which the artist concealed his presence and gave rise to an autonomous and anonymous process of artistic creation. Gino De Dominicis presented Seconda soluzione d’immortalità (l’universo è immobile), an installation in which Paolo Rosa, a young man with Down Syndrome, sat with a sign saying “Second solution of immortality” at his feet, and some of Gino De Dominicis’s works in front of him. The work caused a scandal as the consent of the young participant could not be established and the room was therefore shutdown. Finally, Ketty La Rocca presented Appendice per una supplica in the Performance and Videotape section, which was organized and produced in part by Gerry Schum.

June 30–October 8: documenta 5 curated by Harald Szeemann in Kassel. This is considered to have been the most important documenta and the key figures on the Italian scene were invited to exhibit (Alighiero Boetti, Pier Paolo Calzolari, Gino De Dominicis, Luciano Fabro, Jannis Kounellis, Mario Merz, Giulio Paolini, Giuseppe Penone, Vettor Pisani, and Gilberto Zorio). Photography was well represented but, as at the Venice Biennale, the critics focused instead on performances, artists’ books, and video.

Late 1972: Maria Gloria Bicocchi creates the video production studio art/tapes/22 in Florence. By making its resources available to Italian and foreign artists (Gino De Dominicis, Allan Kaprow, Jannis Kounellis, Giulio Paolini), this venue enabled the production of almost one hundred and fifty videos in the space of just four years. When it closed in 1976, the studio’s video-tapes and archives were transferred to the Archivio Storico delle Arti Contemporanee (ASAC) of the Venice Biennale.


February 28–April: Combattimento per un’immagine: Fotografi e pittori exhibition curated by Luigi Carlucci and Daniela Palazzoli at the GAM in Turin. The exhibition featured over one hundred and fifty international artists and four hundred works produced since the invention of photography. The section devoted to the twentieth century provided Daniela Palazzoli with an opportunity to take stock of the relationship between photography and painting, highlighting the recurrent use of photography by avant-garde artists in the 1960s.This exhibition was a key moment in the recognition of photography as an art form in Italy.

March 2: death of Ugo Mulas. At the beginning of May, the retrospective Ugo Mulas. Immagini e testi was held at the Palazzo della Pilotta in Parma, curated by Arturo Carlo Quintavalle of CSAC. For the first time, the Verifiche series was exhibited in its entirety, alongside his other research projects.

November: creation of the Centro Video Arte di Palazzo dei Diamanti, directed by Lola Bonora, in the Gallerie d’Arte Moderna e Contemporanea di Ferrara. The center collected up to four hundred and fifty video documents at the intersection of performance art, conceptual art, body art, and land art. It was the first public initiative for video art in Italy and was complemented by the organization of the annual festival U/Tape.

November 29–February 28, 1974: Contemporanea exhibition curated by Achille Bonito Oliva in the new underground car park of the Villa Borghese in Rome with over three hundred and fifty international artists. The exhibition was divided into ten sections: art, film, theater, architecture and design, photography, music, dance, artists’ books and records, visual and concrete poetry, and alternative information. A section on photography was curated by Daniela Palazzoli. Video art was present in the art section, while the cinema section exhibited artists’ films.


March 10–April 28: Fotomedia exhibition organized by Daniela Palazzoli at the Museum am Ostwall in Dortmund. The exhibition was split into two sections consisting of Italian artists who worked with photography on the one hand and those who worked with video on the other, including Pier Paolo Calzolari, Ketty La Rocca, Giulio Paolini, Claudio Parmiggiani, and Franco Vaccari. The exhibition was held in Milan from March 24 to April 13, 1975 at the Rotonda della Besana.

June: video recorders went on sale for the first time in Italy.

July 6–September 8: Projekt ’74 – Kunst Bleibt Kunst exhibition organized by Marlies Guterich at the Kunsthalle in Cologne, focusing on video, film, and performance, with many international artists, including Vito Acconci, Giovanni Anselmo, Mario Merz, Giulio Paolini, Giuseppe Penone, Salvo, and Gilberto Zorio.


May 31: Intellettuale, a performance by Fabio Mauri at the Galleria d’Arte Moderna di Bologna. The artist projected Pier Paolo Pasolini’s film Il Vangelo secondo Matteo (The Gospel according to St. Matthew) onto the director’s torso. This was the first of a series of exhibitions involving projections onto various surfaces (naked bodies, a fan, a chair, a building).

December: creation of the Istituto Nazionale per la Grafica, the result of a merger between the Gabinetto dei Disegni e delle Stampe and the Calcografia Nazionale. The aim of this new institution was to safeguard, inventory, and disseminate the cultural assets linked to any technique of image reproduction—prints, photography, cinema, video. Marina Miraglia, director of the photography section, introduced a proactive acquisition policy to support contemporary photographic creation.

Chronology written by Flavio Rugarli